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CONTENTS.

I.—HALuLvucINATIONS . ; , ; ; F °

Interest in spiritual manifestations—The Psychical Society and the census of hallucinations—The Catholic position— Explanation of terms, dream images, mental images, hallucinations, visions, illusions, simple. and veridical hallucinations—Prevalence of hallucinations —Experiences of sight, hearing and touch—Forms assumed by visual hallucinations—Incompletely de- veloped hallucinations—Influence of sex—Of heredity —Of ill health—Of constitution—Of overwork—Of anxiety—Of a state of repose—Of expectancy—Of suggestion—Effects of suggestion in the progress of a hallucination—Evidence of subjective origin—Physio- logy of hallucinations—Connection with the super- natural.

II,— DIFFICULTIES OF THE CaTHOLIC EPISCOPATE IN RUSSIAN PoLAND

Poland and the Convention of 1882—Government inter- ference—Appointment of Mgr. Hryniewcki—Recal- citrant priests—General Kochanov’s tyranny—Exile of Mgr. Hryniewcki—Government interference with nominations—The journey of the exiled Bishop— Mgr. Awdziwicz—Government conditions for carry- ing out a visitation—Government supervision of the clergy—Persecution of the seminaries—Russian mis- conceptions.

bo or

CONTENTS.

IlI.—Tue Cuurcu AND THE BIBLE: THE Two STAGES OF THEIR INTER-RELATION is

Sketch of two previous papers, and of the two introduc- tory and three direct subjects of this last article— Different relations between Faith and Reason in the first and second stage of Biblical study—The two stages and their respective methods contrasted and illustrated—The three transcendent doctrines of the second stage, Canon, Inspiration, Revelation, taken successively in view of the difficulties as to Author- ship, Accuracy, and Finality, which they severally raise—Conclusion of whole series.

IV.—Pastor’s History oF THE Popes P >

Condition of the Church at the death of Calixtus ITI.— Election of Pius II.—His early career—The Congress of Mantua—Disturbances in Italy—Hostility of

rance and Germany to the Holy See—Schemes of Reform-—Congress of Rome—Death of Pius II.— Pontificate of Paul II.—Election of Sixtus IV.— Excessive Nepotism—The balance of power in Italy —The conspiracy of the Pazzi—Advance of the Turks —Capture.of Otranto—Death of Mahomet II.—Re- capture of Otranto—The Spanish Inquisition—The adornment of Rome—tThe Sistine Chapel—Wars with Naples and Venice—Death of Sixtus IV.

V.—Fauu or Kyicuts TEmMPLARS

Origin of the Templars—Their rule—The first English house—Enmities against the Order—Philip le Bel— Clement V.—The Arrest of the Templars—Interven- tion of Edward II. in their favour—Papal commission —Charges against the Order—Testimony of witnesses -—Character of the evidence—Charges of heresy con- cerning confession—Disposition of the Templars’ pro- ‘perty—Execution of the Templars in France—Meagre character of proven guilt.

CONTENTS.

VI.—Tue REsToRATION OF THE HIERARCHY AND THE ECCLE- SIASTICAL TiTLEs BILL . a é " -

Causes of the Restoration—Fall of the Old Hierarchy and appointment of Vicars-Apostolic—Early endea- vours for a Hierarchy—Negotiations in Rome—Letters Apostolic restoring the Hierarchy—Their reception in England—The Durham letter—The Fifth of Novem- ber—The Ministerial banquet—Charges of Anglican Bishops—Cardinal Wiseman’s appeal to the English people—The Queen’s Speech—Debate in Parliament —Introduction of the Titles Bill—The debate in the Commons—Speech of Mr. Gladstone—The debate in the Lords—Final form of the Bill—Ever non-effective —Its repeal.

VII.—Tue Cuvurcu or BorDEAUX DURING THE Last CENTURY OF THE ENGLIsH DoMINION . . ® ° P

Sources: The Diocese of Bordeaux—Statistics of diocese, 1350-1450—The Archpresbyteries—Revenues of bene- fices—The Metropolitan city-—Construction and _his- tory—The Cathedral—Notre Dame de la Place, the “Trish Seminary ”—Saint André—Parish Churches— Convents—The Abbey of Sainte-Croix—The Mendi- cant Orders—Hospitals.

VIII.—Screntiric EvipENcE oF THE DELUGE ,. e P

Speculations on the existence in ancient times of the island Atlantis—Traditions of the Deluge—Opinions of Buckland and the early geologists—Professor Prest- wich’s hypothesis—The Uniformitarian School of Geologists—Detailed evidence for a great submer- gence of land—Remains of animals apparently drowned by the Flood—Probable date of the Deluge —Coincidence of geological facts with the Scriptural and other narratives—The Deluge no mere local in- undation, but a catastrophe on a vast scale.

|

CONTENTS.

IX.—Tue EnGuisno UNIVERSITIES AND THE REFORMATION

The recent decision of the Holy See—The National

Universities in Catholic times—Father Zimmermann’s work—Origin of the Universities and Mr. Gladstone’s theory—The Friars at Oxford—Rise of Humanism” —Cambridge—Blessed John Fisher—Bishop Fox, Archbishop Warham, and Cardinal Wolsey—The epidemics of 1509-1528—Intellectual dissensions— Cambridge as a cradle of Protestantism— Reformers at Cambridge—Importation of heresy to Oxford— The divorce-matter at Cambridge and at Oxford— Henry VIII. and the Universities—The submission— Gardiner’s chancellorship—lIntellectual weakness of English Reformers—Edward VI.—Queen Mary— Elizabeth—Deplorable ignorance of Elizabethan clergy—Summary of results—Comparison with Middle Ages—Prospect.

Scrence Notices . Nores or TRAVEL AND EXPLORATION

Book Notices .

REVIEWS IN BRIEF

PAGE

416

I i a

THE

DUBLIN REVIEW.

OCTOBER 1895.

Art. L—HALLUCINATIONS.

HOSTS and uncanny things attract attention with perennial fascination, and create an itching to probe

the mystery of their nature and meaning. Science, in vindi- cation of the supremacy of matter, has battled strongly and fiercely against spectres and superstitions, but as quickly as one head is severed the hydra at once presents another. No sooner were witches and fairies, wraiths and pixies demolished, than mesmerism and clairvoyance started up to be in due course shorn of their supernatural pretensions, but only to be replaced by table-turning and mediums. The survivals now comprise projections, astral bodies, and mahatmas. The recurrence of these crazes discloses the irrepressible craving in the soul for the unseen, for something beyond the limits of its own nature. In a Catholic this innate longing is gratified by frequent communion with spirits. With him the dead are aot extinct, nor excluded from the range of thought and presence: he speaks with a sense of nearness to saints and angels, he is the instrument of bounty in the realm of purgatory. Spirits and spirit life have for him a homeliness and a familiarity that lessen surprise and deaden curiosity. Those with less faith display more credulity and greater per- plexity. They ask, and with some trepidation, what truth anderlies the stories of ghosts and appearances, the evidence for which has been well sifted and the facts seemingly placed beyond question. Are they phantasms and hallucinations, mere

[No. 16 of Fourth Series. } R

246 HALLUCINATIONS.

figments of the brain, or have they existence external to the spectator? How can a friend hundreds of miles away appear at the moment of his otherwise unknown death? The facts are verified and authenticated : is the phenomenon capable of a natural explanation ?

To throw light on these questions the Society for Psychical Research sprang up some years back. The accounts of ghosts and apparitions, usually second-hand narratives, were as vague and indefinite as the appearances themselves. The members of the Society undertook to thoroughly examine each case, to take evidence at first-hand, to secure written statements, to sift and verify the assertions, and to obtain any possible corro- boration, They then met and discussed the case, offered suggestions and explanations, raised difficulties or objections, or arranged for further inquiry. Isolated instances here and there, however well authenticated, could lead to few general inferences, and they early perceived the advantage of a large number of cases where they might collate common features and apply the ordinary laws of induction. A committee was consequently appointed to organise what they termed a census of hallucinations, by which they hoped to accumulate a suffi- cient number of instances, and also to ascertain the prevalence of these experiences. They enlisted an army of 410 reliable collectors. Each one received instructions to interview twenty- five persons over twenty-one years of age, taken haphazard, and furnish written answers to this question: ‘“‘ Have you ever, when believing yourself to be completely awake, had a vivid impression of seeing or being touched by a living being or inanimate object, or of hearing a voice, which impression, so far as you can discover, was not due to any external physical cause?” To secure an impartial and reliable return, the collectors were enjoined not to put the question to any whom they otherwise knew to have had these experiences, to take the direct evidence of the person himself, and to exclnde those who had been at any time subject to insanity or delirium. The respondents in the affirmative were supplied with a schedule on which to furnish particulars. These returns were examined by the committee, further details or explanations requested, in many cases a member of the com- mittee had a personal interview, and all possible documents

HALLUCINATIONS. 247

and corroborations were obtained. Nine-tenths of the col- lectors had received an education up to the standard of pro~ fessional classes, and the informants were mainly their friends and acquaintances of similar standing. The collection com- menced in April 1889 and continued till May 1892, thus extending over three years, and the Report (400 pp.) appears in the Society’s proceedings for August 1894. The number of persons interrogated was 17,000, of whom no less than 2272 answered the census question in the affirmative,

Before examining the Report and its inferences, some pre- amble is desirable. The Catholic position is clear about super- natural experiences. No Catholic can doubt that Almighty God permits the appearance of spirits to mortals. The testimony of Holy Scripture alone is decisive, and amongst the many instances recorded in the sacred text the most conspicuous, perhaps, is the mission of the Archangel Raphael, who accom- panied the younger Tobias through a long journey in the guise of a man, was seen by many, and only disclosed his identity at the termination of his charge. Throughout the history of the Church the lives of the saints, the chronicles, the records of every age and clime, testify to the frequency of spiritual manifestations. A Catholic may have misgivings about this apparition or the other, but entertains no doubt of their possibility and constant recurrence: his difficulty consists in determining which are supernatural and which are illusions.. If they are supernatural, reverence deters him from scruti-- nising too closely the method in which the manifestation is recognised, for granting a divine interposition God may employ whatever ways He chooses. This does not prevent a Catholic from adopting means to ascertain the supernatural character of an occurrence, or from investigating whether an apparition might be produced by natural causes alone. Should the apparition of a saint be explained by natural operations, God may use, as He frequently does, this natural cause, in the same way as He may restore health either by manifest miracle, or by giving efficacy to ordinary medicine in answer to prayer. The absence of adequate motive for Divine interposition is a striking feature in the census of hallucinations, and helps the tendency to seek for explanation in natural laws known or unknown. The term supernatural in its current sense excludes

248 HALLUCINATIONS.

the unknown natural, hence the term swpernormal more aptly expresses the conditions in question: the figare of an angel in the room may be the subjective creation of the brain, or it may be an objective image permitted by God: the term super- normal includes both suppositions.

The precise meaning assigned to terms in the Report needs some explanation, Dream images are the common stock of all. While the exercise of will, judgment and consciousness are suspended, some mechenism in the brain conjures up appari- tions without limit, often a regular drama, at times violent or grotesque in action, and always inducing for the moment a conviction of reality. In the waking state each one has a greater or less facility of forming mental images—eg., the diagram of a problem in geometry, or the figures of a sum in mental arithmetic may be fairly pictured by many, and adepts will reproduce faces and scenes. These mental images are drawn within the brain, and during their persistence the attention is abstracted from external objects. A mental image which the mind believes to be external and to have relations to surrounding objects is called a hallucination. An external mental image with surroundings that do not belong to the surroundings of the spectator is classed as a vision. The presentment of real objects in such form as to induce the mind to believe them to be something else is an illusion. The dis- tinctions will be the better understood from examples.

As I descended the stairs to breakfast, I saw Mary (the servant) approaching me from the basement door, dressed, as usual when on an errand, in her brown straw hat, black cloth jacket, and light print frock ; and I had only just time to reach the kitchen door to permit her to pass behind me, without stopping, on her way to the scullery. The instant I entered the kitchen I observed to my wife, “So Mary has had to go for milk again.” “No,” she replied, “she has not.” But,” I exclaimed, “‘T have just seen her, dressed, come from the front door; and besides, I heard the door banged as she went out.” “It is your fancy,” she returned, Mary has not been out this morning, and she is now in the breakfast-room at work.”” There was no doubt that such was the case (Report, p. 73).

The image of the servant is here believed t> be external, and is seen in connection with the surrounding doors and passages, and the instance is a hallucination.

HALLUCINATIONS. 249

“T was in my room (I was then residing in the North of England, quite 100 miles away from Miss Morton’s home), preparing for bed, between twelve and half-past, when I seemed suddenly to be standing close to the housemaid’s cupboard, facing the short flight of stairs lead- ing to the top landing. Coming down these stairs, I saw the figure, exactly as described, and about two steps behind Miss Morton herself, with a dressing-gown thrown loosely round her, and carrying a candle in her hand. A loud voice in the room overhead recalled me to my sur- roundings, and although I tried for some time I could not resume the impression (p. 85).

Here the images are separated from the surroundings of the spectator and the experience is classed as a vision.

Lying in bed, facing the window, and opening my eyes voluntarily in order to drive away the imagery of an unpleasant dream which was beginning to revive, I saw the figure of a man, some three or four feet distant from my head, standing perfectly still by the bedstead, so close to it that the bedclothes seemed slightly pushed towards me by his leg pressing against them. The image was perfectly distinct—height about five feet eight inches, sallow complexion, grey eyes, greyish moustache, short and bristly, and apparently recently clipped. His dress seemed like a dark-grey dressing-gown, tied with a dark-red rope. My first thought was, “That’s a ghost ;” my second, It may be a burglar whose designs upon my watch are interrupted by my opening my eyes.” I bent forwards towards him, and the image vanished. As the image vanished, my attention passed to a shadow on the wall, twice or three times the distance off, and perhaps twelve feet high. There was a gas lamp in the mews-lane outside, which shed a light through the lower twelve inches or so of the (first floor) window, over which the blind had not been com- pletely drawn, and the shadow was cast by the curtain hanging beside the window. The solitary bit of colour in the image—the red rope of the dressing-gown—was immediately afterwards identified with the twisted mahogany handle of the dressing-table, which was in the same line of vision as part of the shadow (p. 94).

That is an illusion.

Hallucinations that involve merely the image and the spectator are termed simple hallucinations, but some are sus- ceptible of corroboration from an external person or circum- stance. They may coincide in time with an event—c.g., a death, that happens elsewhere, or they may convey some know- ledge hitherto unknown, or they may be collective—i.e., occur simultaneously to two or more persons. These are called veridical by the Report, for the external relations can be

250 HALLUCINATIONS.

verified. They have a greater interest and an importance than simple hallucinations, for they imply an explanation not only of the genesis of the phantasm, but also of its connection with the verified event or person at a distance. The following is an example:

It occurred at Bury (Lancashire), about fourteen years ago; I was awakened by a rattling noise at the window, and wakened my step- brother, with whom I was sleeping, and asked him if he could hear it. He told me to go to sleep, there was nothing. The rattle came again in a few minutes, and I sat up in bed, and distinctly saw the image of one of my step-brothers (who at the time was in Blackpool) pass from the window towards the door. Time 2.30 a.m. I was in good health and spirits. Age eighteen. I had not seen him for some time. He had not been home for two or three months. We heard next morning that he had been taken ill and died about 2.30 a.m. Three step-brothers and myself slept in the same room. I awakened them, but they could not see anything. My father, hearing the talking, got out of bed, and came into the room. I told him what I had seen, and he got his watch, and said, We will see if we hear anything of him” (p. 227).

In the results of the census the large proportion of persons who have experienced some form of hallucination first arrests

attention. The committee, however, considerably reduce the 2272 affirmative answers. After examination of the narra- tives they exclude many that are not strictly hallucinations— e.g., illusions, dream images, images occurring immediately after sleep that were probably the remains of the dream, mental pictures with the eyes shut, vague or indistinct sounds, and other experiences pronounced doubtful. In this way they have transferred 588 cases, a quarter of the whole, from the ayes to the noes. This leaves 1684 out of 17,000 persons, or roughly one in ‘ten, who believe that they have seen, heard, or felt something supernormal. This large number suggests deception, and the Report discusses minutely the sources of error. Intentional deception, refusals to answer, the bias. of collectors have, it concludes, no appreciable effect on the numbers, for they influence about equally both ayes and noes. Lapse of memory seriously affects the number of ayes:

We estimate that, in order to arrive at the true number of visual hallucinations experienced by our informants since the age of 10, the reported number must be multiplied by some number between 4 and 6},

HALLUCINATIONS. 251

and that in the case of auditory and tactile hallucinations, a still larger correction would be needful (p. 69),

The tendency of errors would rather increase the proportion of ayes. The result is at least startling, but the greater the prevalence of these experiences the more likely are they to be traced to natural causes.

The 1684 cases, in as far as they are reliable, furnish a goodly number, indeed the largest on record, for comparison and analysis. The more numerous the instances the more correct will be the inferences in the inductive process. Al- though the experiences recorded in the census are sufficiently numerous to justify inferences, allowance must be made for the unscientific character of the evidence and the vague and indefinite nature of the whole inquiry. They become tendencies rather than scientific inferences. Taking the senses affected, 62 per cent. of the reported experiences were recognised by the sense of sight, 28 per cent. by hearing, and 10 per cent. by touch. Of the 494 hallucinations of hearing, 84 consisted of mere indistinct voices, in 233 the hearer’s name only was pronounced, and in 177 a sentence or more was heard. Of the 179 tactile cases in only six did the percipient touch the hallucinatory object. Thus the visual instances are the more important and the more reliable, for hearing and touch are more susceptible to deception; sounds, especially at night, are liable to misinterpretation.

The form that visual hallucinations assume and the acces- sories accompanying the experience are interesting and sug- gestive. Of 1112 experiences perceptible by sight, 830 took the human form—viz., 352 of living persons, 163 of dead persons, and 315 unrecognised. ‘The proportion of living to dead phantasms disposes of the traditional connection between ghosts and the departed. The living are more frequently in the mind, and the proportion tends to favour the supposition that apparitions are subjective creations of the brain. In dream images the figures of the living predominate. The form of the appearances will be best described by the Report itself :

One of the facts brought out most strongly by our tables is the tendency of hallucinctions to assume familiar forms. The ghastly or horrible apparitions dear to writers of romance seem to be very rare

252 HALLUCINATIONS.

among healthy grown-up people—at least, among those who are educated. The great majority of hallucinations are like the sights we are accus- tomed to ser, or the sounds we are acccustomed to hear, and even when they are not so, they often suggest, as we shall see, a sort of incomplete- ness in a hallucination of a natural object, rather than a hallucination representing something unnatural. In the exceptional cases where the hallucivation does represent a non-natural being, we find it assuming the conventional form. An angel, for instance, takes the form with which art has familiarised us, and we should be surprised to find one appearing to a grown-up person arrayed in blue boots,” like those seen by Mrs. D. when a ch'ld.

Most visual hallucinations represent human beings, and most of these represent human beings of the present day in all respects. According to our statistics more than two-fifths of the realistic human apparitions represent living persoas known to the percipient, and, of these, 45 per cent. represent inmates of the same house as the percipient, or persons frequently, or (in a few cases) very recently, seen by him, while in another 20 per cent. they represent near relations of his—that is, parents, grandparents, children, husbands, wives, brothers or sisters. In the great majority of realistic cases the apparition represents a single figure only, though there are exceptions.

As far as the reports as to dress enable us to judge, phantoms, both recognised and unrecognised, generally appear in ordinary modern dress, and do not affect old-fashioned costumes any more than real people do. When they move, which, as we have said, happens more often than not, the movement is almost always such as we are accustomed to see. ‘I'he phantom stands on the ground and appears to walk along the ground, and seems to leave the field of vision as a human being would, by walking out of an open door or passing behind some obstacle. A position impos- sible for real persons—such as being up in the air—when the figure’ is otherwise realistic, is very rare. We have only one instance of it. The proverbial gliding movement, supposed to be characteristic of apparitions, is rarely reported. Appearance or disappearance by an unrealistic means is also rare, though there are about a dozen cases in our collection in which the ghost seems to enter or leave a room through a wall, book- case, closed door, or window, or by passing up through the ceiling or down through the floor.

Even when a phantom is stationary, it does not usually either appear suddenly out of empty space, or similarly vanish before the percipient’s eyes, but is generally seen by the percipient on turning his eyes that way, and vanishes, he does not know how, or when he is looking away. There are, however, instances of sudden appearance and disappearance in free space (p. 113).

The Report separates a class of 143 cases, which it calls ‘incompletely developed apparitions.” Although these are not full-grown ghosts they have an interest, for they admit us

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into the factory of hallucinations. Here we have transparent and filmy figures with nebulous substance, shapely enough for an idea, but without outline or features sufficient for an object of real vision. Figures draped hazily or shrouded cross the field of vision without exposing enough to identify them, or a partly finished image comes within sight with outline com- plete, but with details blurred or indistinct. The following are specimens: “I saw the figure of a man which was per- fectly transparent, and which came into the room and sat down by wy side” (p. 109). ‘‘There would be a sort of movement in the air, which gradually took the form of mist, and then developed into a dark-veiled figure, which came nearer to me, and when bending over and about to touch me I threw my hands into it and it vanished” (p. 120). “I distinctly saw—first a filmy cloud which rose up at the other end of the room, then the head and shoulders of a man, middle-aged, stout, with iron-grey hair and blue eyes” (p. 116). Instances are reported of the appearance of a part only of the human figure, the head of a skeleton develops into the head and features of a mother, faces come out of the wall, two black legs walking towards us, and ending abruptly.” These undeveloped apparitions have a semblance to our dream images, and they seem to furnish a link in the chain of evidence to connect the sleeping with the waking dream.

The number and variety of the cases in the census suggest inquiry into what influences or promotes hallucinations. The informants who sent affirmative answers to the census question were in the proportion of two men to three women, What- ever mental or nervous differences exist in the physiology of the female would seem to favour hallucinations. This corre- sponds with Mr. F. Galton’s assertion in his Inquiries into Human Faculty,” that women have greater power of visualising than men. Men apparently forget their hallucinations sooner, for on examining the influence of forgetfulness the Report discovers that the longer the interval of time since the occurrence of the experience, the larger becomes the proportion of women who have been subject to hallucinations. The more impressionable female nature retains longer the memory of such experiences. Difference of age has little effect, old and young see spectres indiscriminately, except that the propor-

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tion is slightly higher between the ages of twenty and thirty. In young children the frequency of hallucinations is difficult to ascertain, for their powers of memory and observation are defective. That they have hallucinations is undoubted, and some think that they are specially liable to them. An instance of a child under two years of age who saw an apparition of a person recently dead, is recorded in the Annales Psychiques (January 1894, p. 7). The representation of grotesque and fanciful images is a feature in the hallucinations of children. A child’s judgment is immature and its stock of knowledge limited, and it is more likely to see distorted or quaint images. In dreams and delirium where judgment is in abeyance, grotesque images appear to adults, another point in the analogy between dream images and these hallucinations.

The statistics of the census slightly favour heredity as influencing hallucinations. No special question was put about relationship, but accidental references in the narratives intimate that in no less than eighty-five families two or more have had supernormal experiences. ‘‘In one family, two sisters, a father, grandfather, two uncles and two aunts were all subject to visual hallucinations” (p. 154). In the 129 collective hallucinations—i.c., seen or heard by more than one person, half were experienced by blood relations. The fact of living together only partially accounts for this, since the hallucina- tions seen by both husband and wife, more frequently in company, are only 10 percent. In confirmation of the census cases every one has read of ancestral ghosts who are seen only by the family, as also of warnings and appearances at the death of a member of the family. How far these experiences are really attributable to heredity may be open to question; it seems more likely that family tradition renders the form familiar, and induces any hallucinatory tendency to assume it.

We might anticipate that ill-health would prove a fruitful source of hallucinations. A physique weakened by disease or languid through lassitude might be expected to leave the imagination open to spectres and visions, and popular scepticism attributes ghosts to the machinations of dyspepsia and other ailments. The census tends to shatter the current notion that spectres are dependent on a low condition of bodily health. Insanity and delirium were excluded by the collectors, hence,

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with the exception of febrile hallucinations, the answers of the informants would include any other illness. The schedule submitted to the affirmative informants contained the question : “Were you out of health?” About 44 per cent. asserted positively that they were in good health at the time of the experience, and 48 per cent. passed the question by without reply. The omission to answer is assumed by the Report to indicate that the informant was in health. It is often clearly inferred in the actual narrative, the tendency is to exaggerate rather than to overlook the connection between the hallucination and ill-health, and the terms of the question might imply that an answer was not required unless out of health. Only 123 cases, or about 7 per cent. report a certain degree of ill-health. In twenty-one the patient was convalescent, and in the remainder describes himself as ‘‘in a nervous dyspeptic condition,” “in a very low state of health,’ bronchitis with weakness of heart,” a little below par and somewhat nervous and excited.” So that the bulk of the informants seem to have the full possession of their faculties, and to be in a normal condition of health with no symptoms of disease, except the hallucination itself be regarded as such. Those who are conversant with the phenomena of hypnotism do not admit the hallucinatory tendency to be a disease.

It may be suggested that hallucinations happen to persons who are constitutionally subject to them, and may be traced to something amiss in the mental gear. The Report disposes of this by a table which shows that only a third of the informants have experienced more than one hallucination, and that two-thirds state definitely that they have had one and one only. This favours the supposition that hallucinations do not imply a morbid physical condition. The frequency with which hallucinations occur to those who have experienced more than one varies in this proportion; about one-half “several or many,” a third two only, and the remainder from three to six. With some the experiences have been miscellaneous, but with more than half the same experience has recurred with slight variations, In the recurrence of the same hallucination