of Theology at Cla

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Theology Library


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THE object of this Collection of Grammars is to provide the learner with a concise but practical introduction to the various languages, and at the same time to furnish students of comparative philology with a clear and com- prehensive view of their structure. The attempt to adapt the somewhat cumbrous grammatical system of the Greek and Latin to every other tongue has introduced a great deal of unnecessary difficulty into the study of languages. Instead of analyzing existing locutions and enleavoaring to discover the principles which regulate them, writers of grammars have for the most part constructed a frame- work of rules on the old lines and tried to make the language of which they were creating fit into it. Where this proves impossible the difficulty is met by lists of exceptions and irregular forms, thus burdening the pupil’s mind with a mass of details of which he can make no practical use.

In these grammars the subject is viewed from a dif-

ferent standpoint: the structure of each language is


carefully examined, and the principles which underlie it are carefully explained; while apparent discrepancies and so-called irregularities are shown to be only natural euphonic end other changes. All technical terms are excluded unless thuis meaning and application is self- evident; no arbitrary rules are admitted; the old classi- fication into declensions, conjugations, etc., and even the usual paradigms and tables, are omitted. Thus reduced to the simplest principles, the Accidence and Syntax can be thoroughly comprehended by the student on one perusal, and a few hours diligent study will enable him

to analyze any sentence in the language.

The present volume is specially adapted for the require- ments of Candidates for the Indian Civil Service and for the various Military and Civil Examinations in India. It will also be found an indispensable help to all who

are commencing the study of Oriental languages,

It forms the first of a collection of Simplified Grammars, each containing cither one or a group of two or three ‘cognate languages, according to circumstances. . The first volume consists of Hindustani, Persian and Arabic, the latter, though not belonging to the same family as the other two, is included because of the numerous

words and locutions which these borrow from it. This


volume will be followed by. Grammars of the Keltic -and Slavonic languages and dialects, also of Modern Greek, of Sanscrit, Pali, Burmese, Siamese, Malay. Chinese, and Japanese,—likewise of Grammars of the most important vernaculars of Modern India. The Keltic section will contain Welsh, Gaelic, Irish, and Breton; the Slavonic scction will comprise Russian, Polish, Bohemian, Bulgarian; and the Scandinavian section {celandic, Danish, Swedish, and Norwegian. A volume on Anglo-Saxon is also in course of preparation. The Kditor and Publishers, by the selection of the most com- petent scholars for the work, and by the greatest care in the production, hope to render this scries of the utmost practical utility both to linguistic students and comparative philologists, للا‎ H. ۰

2.0200 (۲6۳۱/75 188].




The Persian-Hindistani alphabet is a modification of the Arabic. It is written from right to left. NAME. EQUIVALENT. PRONUNCIATION, ۱ أ‎ Alf, 4 زه‎ 4, ۵۵0۲۷ This is the spiritus lenis of the Greek, a mere prop to rest an initial vowel on.

م 0 Le,‏ ب As in English.‏ 1 Pe, P‏ کپ ee 0, 4 A soft dental 1 like the Italian.‏ Ta, t A hard palatal ¢.‏ تا Se, 8‏ انث Jim, 7 As in English.‏ سے Che, 4‏ کچ c 77, h An aspirate strongly breathed out from‏ the chest.‏ Fa Khe, kh Like cz in Welsh or Gaelic, or the German‏

ch as pronouuced in Switzerland. 1




A soft dental d as in Italian. A hard palatal d. As in English. _ ; A 507 تھ"‎ Pe. A-hard palatal ۰ As و‎ in English. Like the French j in jour, or our s in pleasure,

As in English. -

As gin English.

Properly pronounced with the tongue full against the front part of the palate, but ordinarily pronounced like ات‎ 2007 .

A guttural sound only heard in Arabie : in India it is not often pronounced.

A guttural sound something like the French r grasseyé. As in English.

A very guttural رم‎ like ck in theck, only much stronger.

۳ in English, but g is always hard be-

fore all vowels, as کے‎ gi, pronounced

| ghee, not jee /

20 1 3 7 r %


8 sh 5 2 1


a, ete.


7 4



Dal,‏ د Dal,‏ 5 Zal,‏ د y Re,‏ Re‏ 3 4 ز Zhe,‏ ژ

Sin,‏ س Shin,‏ ش Sad,‏ ضص 24 ض

Toe,‏ ط

Loe,‏ ظ Ain,‏ ۹ Ghain,‏ ¢ Le,‏ ف

0 کت‎ Kaf, گی‎ Gaf,

2 Lam, Dim,


THE ALPHABET. ~ 3 NAME. RQUIVALENT. PRONUNCIATION. w Wan, ۶ Asin English, but sometimes nasal at the

end of a syllable, when it sounds like the French in bon; before 0 or f it is sounded as m.

w Nearly as in English, but a little in-‏ ت77 و

clined to ۰ 80۳00 ۰ | | : As in English. us Ye 1

These are joined to the preceding letter by prefixing a small

turve or stroke, and to the following letter by removing the

eurve with which they all but ۵7 end: thus 0 DETACHED. INITIAL. MEDIAL. FINALe ow J 2 ی نا‎ 3 a Oo هی‎ ح‎ 7 ۳ عہ یہ‎ t عع ی‎ ge 0 ces كك 4 5 کت‎ 1 ل ای سڈ‎ م‎ 5 Re ¢ 5 0 مت الل 2 ھ‎

if deprived of the curve would become unrecognizable;‏ دور hence they do not join to the left.‏

The above letters are all consonants.



The vowels are ۶ w (as in bull), and > a (pronounced like 4

in but), both written above the letter and 7 % written below .

the letter. uh Saas

Combined with } a, و0 و‎ and ey, these become \ aa (a), 3 mw (a), ی‎ ty (2), و‎ 0 (pronounced as ow in cow), ی‎ at (like ; in fine). ۱

No word can commence with a vowel in the Arabic character : if it does the vowel is introduced by alif \.

When a syllable begins with a vowel, the mark = hamzeh is used to introduce it.

But this hamzeh being written above the line requires a prop: this in the case of ۵ is رأ‎ in the case of ه‎ it is رو‎ and in the case of 7 it is ری‎ only that in the initial form this last is dis- tinguished from the ordinary y by losing its dots: e.g. شهار‎ 85-41, جع‎ pie,” جاون‎ ja-an, “I go,” کر‎ 20-7, “any,” “some,” فائدہ‎ fa-ida, “advantage.”

Tashdid doubles the letter it is placed over.

> Sulkin shows that the letter it is placed over has no vowel.

= Waslah is only used over an initial اه‎ in an Arabic word, or over the Arabic article ال‎ al, and shows that it is elided.

~ Maddah is placed over an initial ey and shows that_ it should be pronounced long, as آنا‎ dna, “to come.”

If the first letter of an Arabic word be a sibilant or liquid



the article ال‎ is elided before it and the consonant itself doubled, as عوام كاسن‎ wwammu-nnas, common people,” ai) OL£ ubdu-llah, Abdullah” (the servant of Allah),


_. Accidence teaches us the modifications of which words are capable in order to express the various accidental cireumstances of person, gender, number, time and place. Such modifications

-are called inflections, and extend to verbs and nouns alike,


The following are the only inflections used :

\ 5 at the end of a word shows that it is masculine.

feminine,‏ 35 = 3 ی

| 2 when further inflected becomes ی‎ é.

The affixes ی‎ ۶ in nouns and ین‎ é in verbs express the

masculine plurcl; when they are further inflected they become

۰ ون express the feminine plural.‏ ره an or we‏ 3 cae kutté ka, of a dog.‏ کا 2s kuttd, a dog.‏ kutton kd, of dogs.‏ کت كا 7 cos kutté, dogs.‏ a girl. wh Si larkiyan, girls.‏ رت بآ ou‏ 3

larkiyon ka, of girls.‏ لڑکیون کا

Where words end in a consonant the change of ۱ to ی‎ and

ہے اا كا نع كار Se ae‏ ا کا یف et‏ ا


cs cannot take place, for the simple reason that there is no ۱ to change. But they can and do add ز ورن‎ -as

mardon kd, of men.‏ مردون mard, man or men. is‏ سرك


Cases or Nouns.

The eases of nouns are’made by adding the following سی‎ called post-positions : : کا‎ ka expressing genitive case or a dependent relation. کو‎ ko for the objective case. نی‎ ne for the agent. These will be explained later on in the syntax. مه سی‎ for the instrumental or ablative case.

21 ti 66s 95 ہیں‎ men 1009301۷060 0

وو 0 on.‏ 7 ۷ در

tak | Bp te”?‏ تکٹ ai for the vocative.‏ أى and the prefix‏

PRONOUNS. The pronouns are $ ہیں‎ main, I. تو‎ 28 or تیں‎ tain, thou. ee ham, we. تم‎ tum, you.

In these هارا‎ ara or ara is substituted for كا‎ ka to express the genitive; as میرا‎ mérd == mai(n)ard, of me.

tai(n)ara, of thee.‏ = 14 تیرا

نح حار Tee‏ يسك ور کیل و مار


hamara, of us.‏ همارا of you‏ ,10/01۲ رن 2 tujh in their in-‏ عچهء en mujh and‏ 0 تين and‏ مین and‏

flected forms.

The other pronouns are formed as follows :

‘The syllable» ytat the beginning expresses the near demonstrative. ١

35 و‎ 2 7 remote 7 5 5 عر‎ ١ 7 رو رح‎ is relative. ۳ t وو‎ is correlative. Thus, یہہ‎ yth, و۵‎ wuh, . ا کون‎ kaun, جون‎ Jaun, تون‎ taun, this that who ? who, which that same

wh? yahan, وهان‎ wahan, us kahan, جبان‎ jahan, تبان‎ tahan, here there where wherever there pol idhar, ادهر‎ udhar, تدھر ,100 جد هر ,1:00/017 كدهر‎ tidhar, hither thither whither whither thither يون‎ yin, وون‎ WM, گیون‎ kyin, جمون‎ J yin, تيون‎ 20000 thus 80 how as 80 اننا‎ dima, اتنا‎ wena, کتنا‎ Kitna, حننا‎ jitna, تتنا‎ titna,

this (so) many, that (so) many, how many, "as many, or so many, or or much or much or much much as much

tab,‏ تب jab,‏ حب us-wakt, ) ۶2 kab,‏ اسوقت) ,7 اب now that time when when ~ then‏

taisd,‏ تيسا kaisa, a aes‏ كمسا wats,‏ ويسا aisa,‏ ایسا (like this) so (like that) how (like what) as (like which) so (like the same)‏ مع


In their formatives, ۰ the form assumed ‘by them before a post-position, -4) yih, ول‎ wuh, کون‎ 5210۸, become أس‎ 48, owl us, کس:‎ kis. “So, t00, خو‎ jo, he who, and ps s0, its correlative, make jis and ۰ ۳ ۱

The reflexive proncuns are: cot ap اینا)‎ genitive apna, objective کو‎ wt dp ko, etc.), ”نآ“‎ and تمین‎ tain, '' self,” undeclined. آب)‎ ap somet_mes means “your honour ;” its genitive is then أنب كا‎ dp ha).


The relation which is expressed in other languages by a prepo- sition, “‘ putting something before a word,” is in Hindistani expressed by a post-position, “putting something after it.” These are first the signs of the cases already given, the rest are merely nouns of time or place in their inflected form with- out اس وقستا 9۰ء : میں کو‎ us wakt, That time” =‘ then ;” مرد کی جهت.‎ mard ki jihat, “Tn the direction of the man.” Jthat being feminine, the kd becomes 42 to agree with it. This concord is always observed.

235 3 | GENDER.’

Words necessarily implying females are feminine. We have seen that a feminine is made from a masculine in @ by turning it intoz(p. 5). Other feminine terminations are ٴش‎ 2 ish, ہا ت‎ hat. OF course there are exceptions, and these are

mostly foreign words, where. the letter which would otherwise

9‏ > -.3728ج:20711

show the word to be feminine belongs to the root, as the Arabic وشست‎ wakt, time,’ which is masculine. ~ 5

All Arabic words of the form راهم تفعیل‎ are feminine. Some words are arbitrary in their gender, just as in English a ship is feminine. These must be learnt by practice. Words not

included in the above categories are masculine.

000 77+

‘This is made by putting the noun with which comparison is ‘made in the ablative or instrumental case with سے‎ se, and leaving the adjective unchanged; as پہہ لڑکا اس سے اجها هی‎ yth larka us se achchha hat, “This boy is better than that.”

Sometimes, for greater clearness, the word زیادہ‎ 206 “more,” is ”دہ‎ or the Persian comparative, as بچهشر‎ bth-tar, “better,” may be introduced.

The superlative is made by adding سمب‎ sab, “all,” as سب لڑکوں سے اجھا‎ sab larkon se achchha, “Best of all the boys.” 1 ۱


۴۳۰۴09۷۸9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

from left to right as with us, and are combined in the same way

The numerical figures are They are written as our own; 6.7, ۱۸۸۴۶ ۰ The Numerals in Hindistani are not easy to learn, as they seem to have a different form for each number up to a hundred. This difference is, however, only apparent, as in their original

1 See the Section on Arabic Grammar,

اوم ع ا ا سوس i‏ ی


form they are as regular as our own. Without, however, going into the philological question, I will show how they may be وت‎ ranged like the English numerals. ۱

First we have the digits 1 to 10, closely resembling those of other Aryan languages. ;

Then the “teens,” represented by dra.

Then the “tys,” represented by is.

At 40 the ا۷٢۰‎ become irregular, and we must learn more, namely, اس‎ as for the “ty” of 50, .gi\ ath for that of 60, اتر‎ attar for that of 70, اسی‎ asst for that of 80, and نوی‎ nave ۰ for that of 90. ۱

19, 29, etc., up to 79, are expressed by 20 ,1ج‎ 80—1, and

80 on. teen arah 2 اگارہ‎ 7 1 5 ایکت‎ 4 + os كيارة‎ gtyarah. 2 دو‎ do 12 باره‎ barah, 0۵-0۵ (be, ef. Latin 25٠ لمن‎ ۰ 13 Syed ۰ 4 جار‎ chair. 14 جودر*‎ ۰ 5 پاچ‎ panch. 15 37::م تو پندرہ‎ 0+ 6 > ۰ Lor سوله‎ solah. 7. كاحت‎ p 7 سترة‎ 6 8 ۸0۶1ھ اتهاره 18 :0 اي‎ 9 انیس ۳19 ۰ و‎ unis, one from (5)is.

10 دس‎ das. ۰20 ہیس‎ bis =bé-is =twain-ty.

ول" رٹ اود se‏ و سا yi‏ انين

NUMERALS, 11 ty وت‎ ty 7s 0000 41 اأالكتاله‎ 6. رد ےر‎ 9 8 42 ببالئيس‎ be-alis.

.8 تینتالیس 43 chau-dlis.‏ حوالیس 44 .8 پینتالیس 45 09-۰ جهیالیس 46 ۰ سینت لیس 47 artalis.‏ اڑتالیس 7 .0 انهتا لیس

49 انواس‎ unchds, one from chas (5 ty). 50 ۰ Cues? ۰ )5(1 alternative awan

51 ایکاون‎ ehawan.

' .20000 باون 52 ۰ تر oe‏ 53 < ۰‏ ین 54

کجہں 55

56 wea chhappan.

57 ستاون‎ satawan. 58 اتهاون‎ 00

59 a land | unsath, one from 6 (ty). 60 ile sath.

.8 بائیس ‏ 22 .10-8 تیلیس 23 جوبیس 24 pags? ۰‏ 25 .8 چھبیس 26 satd-is.‏ ستائیس 27 atha-is.‏ اٹھائیس 28

29 أنتيس‎ untis, one from tas.

30 ٹیس‎ tis=t+is= three-ty:

.6 أيكتيس 31

۶۰ بتیمس. ۰ 32 تمنتیس 83 ,8 چونٹیس 34 ۰ بینتیس 85 .8 چھتیس 86 ۰ سینٹیس 87 اآنهنیس artis.‏ اتيس 0 .2 انتالیس ( .0 ا اہ

موی چالیس 40 ty.‏ 4=

ast 9/031. 6-053. 10۳085 07101165, pachast, chhe-Gsi. satast. athést. nawast, 11000100, nawe 6:61:42. ۸37و٥0۰ ۔_.‎ tiradnawe. chaurdnawe. panchanawe. pachanawe. chhe-dnawe. satdnawe. athanawe. nandnawe. nawanawe.

sau. 800. p. 14.



أيكاسى 81 بیاسی 82 اتن دم جوراسى 84 چچاسی 85 چهیاسی 86 ستاسى 87 اهاسی 88 نوأسى 89 نوی 90


ایکانیی 91 پبانوی 92 گنوی 98 چورانوی 94 پاچانوی 95 بچا نوی چھیانوی 96 ستأنوی 97 ائهانوی 98 ننانوی | 59 نوانوی ee‏ )100 oem‏


(6)ty sath ایکسئ.‎ ehsath. . ial basath. ترسٹھ‎ ۰ حونستم,‎ chaunsath.

auras 00344 . حهیاسته‎ chhe-dsath.


arsath.‏ ازسته

sing’ \ athsath.

unhattar, one‏ انہتر from hattar (7) ty.‏ ype sattar. -‏

(1)ty ۰ hattar =sattar }

eu \ ekhattar,

gd 0,‏ تبتر چرھتر FES, pachhattar.‏ ۰ چھہنر ۰ ستہتر athattar.‏ الهتر

undst, one from‏ اناسی


asst.‏ سی

1 The s and % being interchangeable, see

61 62 63 64 65 66 67




71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79


کر ری


The ordinal numbers are: 7 Ist يبلا‎ 48 2nd دوسرا‎ disra

8rd ٹیسرا‎ 19۳3 4th تھا‎ > chautha

and the rest by adding ون‎ WAN, 0.8. بيسوأن‎ 081 “twentieth.”

The termination wis wan, when inflected, becomes وین‎ wen.

Fractions are:

1. SuBSTANTIVES. 2. ADJECTIVES. را‎ pa-o لور‎ paun | ١ Au a quarter. َك‎ 1 one quarter less. بونی ۱ 8 جو تهائی‎ 6 تاذ‎ 1173-8, a third. . ساڈھے‎ sdrhe, one half more. لا فى‎ ادها‎ adhd, a half (also used \ سوا‎ sad, 8 quarter more. as an adjective). ڈرژہ‎ derh, one and a half.

arha-2, two and a half.‏ اڑھائی | one & a quarter.‏ ر60006-5 سو ای


Verbs only consist of a root which is combined with various participial affixes and the auxiliary verb Zo be.

The simplest form of the auxiliary verb is that which ex- presses “being” for each of the persons. This is generally

2 ۰ known as the substantive verb.”

SuBsTanTIve VERB. The following comparative table shows the forms assumed by

this verb in the principal Aryan languages:

مت سر ee‏ کت ا ان ین اک reid‏ و اتا وت Se‏ هد و ۳ 1 5


PERSIAN. ZEND. Sanskrit. PRAXKRIT. ۱۱۱ ٭تتد ری‎ : al. ahmi. اعت‎ dai ene ای‎ ahi 35 ast WG :

ی adi (aii)‏ اعت # . . استب

۱ ايم‎ mahi we 0 i ابد‎ ‘Gta 7 aha و‎ اند‎ 7010 afer anti - oe

In Greek and Latin these become ext, etc., and sum, etc., it bem a philological law that the 7 and s interchange.

When the Hindistani forms of the above are not. affixed they take ۵ h before it, as هون‎ hin, کی‎ hat, ete.

Parts oF THE VERB.

The parts of verbs are the following : Tur Root, as 25 gir, 0 19([ 35 Infinitive or Noun

of Action,

gir-na.‏ گرنا nd, as‏ نا

Mere Abstract or | ون‎ and its inflections رین وى وى‎ 8 Indefinite Action, ون‎ 3 girun, 1 falling, ete. Actual Future, گا‎ ga. and the participial affixes, viz. : One doing, تا‎ 4,

111 : One done, ‘ec ۱ all inflected like nouns.

and the present and past tenses of the substantive verb هون‎ han ete., تھا‎ tha etc.


All the parts of the verb are but combinations.of the above. For the different numbers, persons, and genders we have merely to alter the rmastion أ‎ ۶ into 2 for feminine, ة ی‎ for mascu- line inflections or plural, and in the aorist یں‎ em for plural masculine, and ين‎ in for plural feminine, according to the rule given on p. 5. 2

The root in its simplest form is used for the imperative singular, as لکه‎ “write thou.” To this we may add the termination بى‎ 476, which makes the command into a request. جاهئی)‎ 076716, from حاهنا‎ chahna, “to wish,” is used in the

43 oe ce sense of one ought,” we should,” let us,” etc.)


Root لک‎ Lith, “write.”

likh, Write.‏ لكب main likhin, I (may be) writing.‏ مین لکهون ham likhen, We (may be) writing.‏ هم لکھیں

writing-shall.‏ 1 و7 main‏ سين لكهو نگا main likhta hin, I (mase.) one-writing am.‏ مين لکھتا هون main likhta tha, I one-writing was.‏ میں لکنها تھا likha, I wrote.‏ ۱۰۵۸-9۵ میں فى لکھا likha hai, I wrote is, ۸0. the state it‏ 702۵ سين فى لكها هی wrote” is now a fact =I‏

have written.


main-ne likha tha, I wrote was, ۶. the state‏ من فى لكها ٹھا ““T-wrote’’ was the fact=‏ ; Thad written.‏ . wrote will be, 2.6. the state‏ 1 ,۵98 1/5۸4 110-6 مین + نی لکها هوگا “T wrote” will take place‏ shall have written.‏ 21 _

From which examples we see that the tenses of the verbs are formed merely by combinations of the words given above (p. 14). The construction with the agent in فى‎ ne will be ex- plained further on.

By adding the adverbial particle هی‎ or the termination ی‎ 7 the word becomes emphatic, as ہی‎ 7 (ol ist), this very ;” so هوتا‎ hota, “being,” in its inflected form of هونی‎ hote, be- comes, with the addition of هوتى هی ,هی‎ hote hi="In the condition of one actually being,” ۰ “Just as he was doing or becoming something: 6. دیکهتا‎ dekh-ta, “seeing,” ديكهتى هی‎ dekh-te hi, “‘ At the very moment of his seeing.”

The Hindustani language is very dramatic, never employing the indirect narration, and the speaker is always as it. were pointing to what he is talking about. So when it is required to express a hypothesis and its consequence, it is sufficient to mention the two things and place them as it were side by side: thus Vile تو جو 7 أيسا كرتا تو میں‎ wuh aisa karta to main jata, 1+ he were to do so I would go,” dit. ““If he so doing then I going.’ Hence the use of the present participle, e.g. كرتا‎ karta,

as a conditional tense.

۲837011۲۸۴ ۰ 17

111710 ۳۸۲ VERBS.

Of course some verbs will not at first sight appear to form their different parts exactly after this rule, and are therefore called Irregular. As a matter of fact any apparent irregularity is only due to necessary euphonic change. For example: کر نا‎ 70۶۸3, ‘to do,” makes گیا‎ syd in the past, and سرنا‎ marnda, “to die,” makes سوأ‎ mu-d. This arises from the fact that’ the original root contained the old vowel-consonant را‎ and 588 2 (compare the English “‘oreate’”), this being hard to pronounce, becomes resolved either into ar or 2: now گرا‎ kara (though it does occur in poetry) is not easy to utter, and kind is harder still. We therefore get siya for the past, and karna for the infinitive, the y being introduced simply to facilitate the pro- nunciation. The cockney patois does precisely the same thing (cf. I-y-aint).

In مرنا‎ marnd, ‘to die,” the root originally contained a vowel t (cf. سردن‎ murdan in Persian and mors in Latin), from which we get mu-d and mi-d=mu-w-d. Again هونا‎ hond, ‘to be,” makes Aiwa. Here a w is introduced for similar euphonic reasons.

۲۸٥٥٢ 0

The Passive Voice is of very rare occurrence in Hindistani و‎

some grammarians cyen aflirm that it does not exist. There 2


are, however, plenty of words and expressions to make up for it; of. تمام‎ ce کہا‎ es بيب جلدی هو‎ 717 jaldi ho mujhse 11076107 tamdam, May this story soon be finished by me,” ۰ “This story be from-me soon complete.”

When the Passive must be used, 2.6. when an active verb has to be made passive, the past participle is used with the verb حانا‎ jana, “to go,” as مارنا‎ 1716116, ‘to beat,” مارا جانا‎ mara jana, “to be beaten.” With this usage we may compare the English “to get beaten,” “gct” being connected with go ;”

۰ ۰ 20 ef. American you get,” and our own امعم‎


To turn a neuter into an active, or an active into a causal, © is added to the 8002 : a second causal verb may be formed from this by adding 76 to the root. These are probably the roots of ‘the verbs آنا‎ ana, “to come,” and iY lana=\} co “to bring,” introduced to give further motion to the previously neuter or inactive verb. a

Compound Worps,

Hindistani is very rich in Compound Words. Nouns of this kind are for the most part borrowed from the Persian, and these are so like English in their arrangement that they can cause no trouble to the learner.

The types most in use are exactly analogous to such English

4 ۰ (a3 compounds as tinder-box,”’ block-head,” ‘“yosy-cheeks,” etc.


The Compound Verbs are rather more difficult to explain, but

they range themselves readily under three heads.

1. Those where the root alone is used, as expressing mere action, and is subsequently further defined or qualified by another verb expressing the secondary condition of the person

of whom the action is predicated.

2. Where the present participle, ¢.g. كرثا‎ karta, “one doing,” is used, expressing the condition of the individual. The idea. may be subsequently expanded, and a secondary predication

made of his state with regard to time and place.

3. Those in which the past participle, as گیا‎ syd, is used to express a complete action, and a further statement is added of the condition of the person with reference to such action.

The first belongs te those verbs which are generally called 1. Intensives, 2. Potentials, 3. Completives, of which the fol- lowing are examples :

1. تر پی جانا‎ jand, to drink up (to go through it—get

it over). کها جانا‎ kha sand, to eat up. ہو 4 اٹھنا‎ bol uthna, to speak up (speaking—to stand up). کاٹ ڈالنا‎ zat 9672, to cut up (cutting—to use violent action). - - lity گر‎ gir parna, to fall down (falling—to lie down),

yo کھو‎ kho dend, to squander away (losing—to give).



2. Any verbal root with مُگنا‎ sakna, to be able. كها سکنا‎ kha saknd, to be able to eat. 8. Any verbal root with چکنا‎ chukna, ما‎ finish.”

Note that in these compounds the root is unaltered, and the second member of the compound only is conjugated ر*‎ if this is transitive it will take me in the past, but not otherwise (see Syntax); eg. شیر کو مار دالا‎ eal us ne sher-ko mar dala, ۳ he slew the lion,” because we say اسنے الا‎ : but LS كو كها‎ uy وڈ‎ wuh roti-ko kha gaya, because we say گیا‎ Be.

To the second class belong—1. Continuatives, and 2. so-called Statistical verbs.

The only real compounds of this kind are those formed with the present participle in its adverbial (¢.e. masculine inflected) form, ہیں‎ men, “in,” being understood; as

2G balte jana, to go on chattering‏ جانا raked, to keep on reading.‏ 06 بڑھنے رہ هنا

The so-called statisticals and other continuatives are simply sentences where the present participle occurs, and must be inflected to express number and gender; as

wuh hansta jata hai, he—a laughing man—‏ وک هنستا حاتا هى

goes on.

wis Sy wuh gatt ati hat, she—a singing woman‏ آی هى

comes on,

To the third class belong—1. Frequentatives, 2. Desiderae


tives; i.e. we have only to remember that the past participle with کر نا‎ karna and حاهنا‎ 07/616 means to “keep on doing a thing,” or to ‘desire to do it,” and that such compounds are considered as intransitive.

Another class of compounds is formed with inflected infini- tives; as كنا‎ ee كر‎ karne lagna, “to begin to do.” LS lagna means to apply oneself,” and the whole expression is equiva- lent to کر نے (كو با مين ) لکنا‎ harne ko or men lagna, ما‎ apply oneself to doing.” Similarly UL كرك‎ and کر( نے دینا‎ harne 8 and harne dena, ‘‘to give or get leave to do.”

The repetition of a root will also imply continuation or fre- quency; as 1 سوچ سوچ‎ soch soch kar, “having reflected :” or two different roots may be so used; as ہو 5 حال‎ bol chal, مع“‎

on talking together.” THE SYNTAX, .

In Accidence we found how each word was capable of certain modifications to express the accidents of person, number, gender, or time.

We now come to Syntax, which, as its name implies, is the putting together of these individual words, or groups of words, to express one complete idea.

The Accidence being known, all that we require further is to learn the usage of the language in this syntactical arrangement.

This depends first upon the natural order in which ideas occur.

vel كام‎


Secondly, upon tho history, traditions, habits, and disposition of the people using the ideas; 2.6. on the natural order modified by habits: in other words, idiom or peculiarity.


Now, the complete expression of an idea is called a sentence, which in its simplest form is the mention of a person or thing and the telling something about him or it; e.g.

Man is mortal. John went و‎ but if the verb is 22ھ772‎ 0.6. if, as its name implies, its action goes on to something else, we must have something else for it to go on to; ۰ John struck James.

All that can possibly be added to this is: (1) something telling us about the state of John or James,—these are adjec- tives added to the person; (2) the manner of the striking,—these are adverbs added to the verb; (8) the manner in which, or the thing with which, it was done,—these are instruments; or (4) the time or place where and when it was done,—these are

locatives. 1 Tur Cases or Nouns.

Now, for each of these cases the Hindistani has a case.”

The simplest uninflected form expresses the subject of the history to be narrated.

It may also be called the nominative, or case which names him.

The Oriental and European grammatical systems not being

precisely the same, the technical names of the cases borrowed

089093۵0201 اور

CONSTRUCTION WITH نی‎ née AND كو‎ ۸0. 23

from the latter are not always applicable to the former, and not unfrequently mislead the beginner. Three of these have a peculiar and distinctive use in Hindustani, and for them the ٠ following nomenclature is suggested as more in accordance with the principles of Urdu grammar :—


Old nomenclature. Examples. nomenclature.

Nominative and Accusative ... مرك‎ . . Subjective.

Dative and Accusative...... مرك کو‎ . . Objective.

Lg ae سرد نے دا ری‎ . . Agent.

In the remaining cases, as no additional clearness would be gained by a change of names, the old nomenclature is retained. The cases in and کو‎ are the great stumbling-block to be- ginners.

CoNSTRUCTION WITH نی‎ me AND کو‎ ko.

In former grammatical analysis the agent was always trans- lated by the English preposition ‘‘by,” and the verb regarded as passive. “\eSao گُعا‎ Est a 07 “he saw a dog,’ or Literally, ‘by him a dog was seen’” (Forbes, .م‎ 103). In this view other grammars concur, assuming the verb to be passive and the construction identical with the Sanskrit, ۵0. :

Sanskrit Kukkure-na paniyam ۰

Hindistani Hutte ne péni piyd.

English By the dog water was drunk. However true this may be as an explanation. of the origin of

the construction, it does not explain its present application.


The fact is that the Hindustani idiom makes a much nicer distinction of cases, and of the relation between the verb and the noun, than our own language,

In intransitive verbs, and in all tenses of transitive verbs ex- cept those denoting a past or complete action, a state or condition is implied 7 still going on; as “he walks,” or دز“‎ walking,” “‘he strikes,” ete. The person affected by such condition, or iz whom it takes place, is properly put in the subjective case.

In certain verbs, too, such as ‘‘to give,” which are said ‘‘tc govern two accusatives,” it is obvious that one of these so-called ““ accusatives” is the subject of the gift, that is, the thing given, and the other the odject of it, that i is, the recipient of the gift, Here the Hindistani logically puts the first in the subjective case and the second in the olyective case.

In the case of the past tense of a transitive verb we conceive of an action completed and passed; we wish, therefore, to know the agent concerned in such act.. Here the 700 کہ م00‎ us with an agent case.

A complete past action, regarded as an impersonal action without intimate reference to a subject or object, is put in the uninflected form of the verb, 4.4. the masculine; thus, مرد کو مارا‎ 2 “he struck the man,” where نے‎ Gut is the agent, كو‎ J,» the object, and مارا‎ the impersonal, and therefore

uninflected verb.

But there are many verbs in which the subject of the action

a CONSTRUCTION WITH ی‎ 416 AND کو‎ ko. 95

is more or less intimately connected with it in sense, as— اس - پرورش بائي‎ “he obtained nourishment,” where the action and its subject may be said to form but one idea, being equivalent to ‘was nourished.”

The intimate relationship between the verb and noun ts only ex- pressed in Hindustani by making the former agree in gender and number with the latter. Where the intimate relationship 8 not exist the other construction may be used.

_ Nouns implying abstract ideas will most frequently stand in this relationship to the verb. : :

In some cases the line between the subject and the object is less clearly drawn, and we may use either the one case or the other according as we regard the noun as intimately connected with the action of the verb, or otherwise. For example, we may say— 1

us ne ok lomri‏ ا Spey Ls}‏ ديكهي dekhi. .‏ ۰ 2 7 ته us ne‏ اس نے ایک لومي کو ديكها or‏ ko dekha.‏ یز

04 He saw a fox.”

in the first case, regarding the act of “seeing a fox” as one idea; in the second, dwelling mentally upon the act of “seeing” as complete in itself, but particularizing the object on which such action falls. In other words, the construction differs as we regard the noun from a subjective or objective point of view, and the Hindistini lauguage has a form appropriate to

either idea;


In this way کو‎ ko may be said to render the object definite in the sense of calling attention to its objective nature as distin- guished from the subject; but certainly not, as the grammars assert, in the sense of giving to the noun the force of the definite article. Indeed, both constructions are equally admissible with the word نو“ ايكث‎ an, one,” which makes the noun expressly indefinite, as in the example, and with the demonstrative وه‎ or or 43, which render it beyond all question definite. In such 2ھ‎ the grammars fall back upon the illogical and feeble ex- planation, that the use of کو‎ is “‘more elegant” in one case than in another !

By bearing in mind that the so-called nominative or unin- flected form of the noun is always subjective, that the case in = is only used for the agent, and that the case in کو‎ always points to a distinctly objective state of the noun, the student will avoid an error of idiom into which experience has shown that most beginners fall.

It only remains to be said that the genitive or dependant particle كا‎ 56 agrees with the word that follows it in gender, number, and in being inflected or not; as سرا د کا‎ mard ka, “of the man.”

mard ka larka, The man’s son.‏ مرك کا لڑکا mard ke larke ka, Of the man’s son.‏ درك ای لی کا mard ki jort, The man’s wife.‏ مرد es‏ جورو

hese broad principles can never be departed from, and the

0296 59-5 7 5 ~ 4 ور‎ ١

CONSTRUCTION WITH Cs née AND کو‎ ko. 227

sentence must contain the words with the necessary inflections for marking the cases, the gender, and the number.

The order of ideas in Hindistani is as follows: Subject— Object—Verb, or Agent—Subject—Verb : the latter, as it were, locking the whole up into a compact frame.

The rules given in grammars for the concord of words then are, after all, nothing but—1. Reminders that we are to use these modifying inflections, and maintain this order of words; or 2. Attempts to reconcile any apparent deviation from them.